Study of How Your Genes Can Make a Difference.


The Same Dose Is Not For Everyone (Each Person Is Unique).

Genes determine the composition of all proteins of the body, and as medicines enter the body, they interact a lot with those proteins. Small but normal variations in your genes can produce proteins that work differently from their friends or relatives. This can affect how you react — or do not react — to different kinds of medicines For example, certain pain relievers they only work when the body's proteins convert them in a way inactive to active. It varies considerably from person to person how well these proteins work. Another example, very small genetic differences can change how medicines called statins work to lower blood pressure cholesterol levels in the blood. Discovering the differences of the genetic makeup of people, will help doctors prescribe medicine and correct amounts for each person, making medicines more effective. The result will be the prevention of unnecessary effects, which "One dose for all" is commonly given today. An advantage of this type of research will be a better understanding of the genes that cause or contribute to diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, depression, and asthma. Pharmacogenetic investigations also help scientists figure out new and better ways to develop the medicines of the future.



A Resource for Research.

To understand better how people have different reactions to medicines, scientists conducting pharmacogenetic research need to find the normal variations between certain human genes. This can be done when collects DNA from blood samples or cells inside the cheek (mouth). Scientists store information from DNA samples in a research data library. To protect the privacy of study volunteers, researchers will not name individuals or other personal information along with DNA information Registered in the Research Data Library.


Medicines for You.

Your lifestyle, the foods you eat, and where you live and works can totally affect how you react to medicines. But their genes may also contribute. Scientists study how your genes, Contained in your DNA, they influence your reaction to medicines. This type of Research is called pharmacogenetics or pharmacogenomics. In the last years, scientists have found genetic variations in people that affect reactions to: medicines that lower levels of cholesterol, cancer treatments, AIDS medicines, and many others commonly used drugs. In time, these investigations will provide information to guide your doctor in prescribing medicine and dosage correct for what your body needs.


Did you know that?

• Some people do not get pain relief from certain prescription pain relievers.

• Certain allergy and asthma medicines work fine for some people, but not successful for others.

• About 3 million people in the United States are prone to an overdose risk when given the amount normal of a medicine commonly used to prevent clots blood.

• A normal dose of leukemia treatment, in cases rare, it can cause death in a child who has an unusual change in a single gen.

• The National Institutes of Health sponsors research to understand why people may have different reactions to medicines. The goal of the National Institutes of Health is to improve the health of all Americans through medical research that solves the mysteries about how the human body normally works and how and why it does not work when illness or injury occurs. One of these goals research is to help improve the good effects of medicines, and the instead prevent bad reactions.

• Are prescription drugs no longer safe and effective?
In most cases, yes. But the same dose of medicine is not given to everyone. Although typical dosages work very well for most
people, other medicines do not provide any relief for certain people, or they cause unpleasant and even fatal reactions.

• Why do people have different reactions to medicines? As medicines move through the body, they interact with thousands of molecules called proteins. Each person is genetically unique, and it is because we have slight differences in composition and amounts of these proteins, which can affect the way the proteins are medicines work.

• Who pays for the gene study and medicine? The National Institutes of Health provide money to scientists at universities and
medical centers that propose the best plans to carry out research on how genes cause people to have reactions different from medicines.

• Why should my taxes be spent on research not directly related to specific diseases?
The National Institutes of Health has a top priority to cure and prevent diseases. Research on how people have different reactions to medicines will allow treatments, present and future, for diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes, depression, and asthma are safer and more effective. An advantage of this type of research will provide a better understanding of the different genes that cause or contribute to these and other diseases.

• Who takes part in these investigations? The scientists at universities and medical centers, who receive money provided
by the National Institutes of Health, will recruit volunteers who reflect the abundant diversity of the American population. Investigations of this type are based on studying many different people with a broad spectrum genetics to find the small but normal differences in all
the humans.

• Why should I take part in this investigation? To the Participating in a research study cannot be guaranteed to a no benefit, but these important studies ensure that test how new and better treatments work before they are used in the lives of large numbers of patients.

• Are there any risks to my health if I participate in this class of investigations? Most of the studies will simply consist of take a blood sample or collect cells from the inside of the cheek (mouth) with a cotton swab. Scientists obtain DNA (the genetic matter) from these samples. There are no significant risks that are associated with this type of procedure.

• Will I need to take any medications when participating in this investigation? Generally not. However, some pharmacogenetic studies
may request that volunteers take a medicine in addition to providing a sample of DNA. The people who volunteer for this type of study are
fully informs them of possible risks.

• What happens to my DNA sample? The scientists store the DNA information, provided by your sample, in the library of research data. Your DNA sample will be used only for the research that was explained to you at the beginning, before you were agree to participate. They might ask you if your DNA sample could be used for certain future medical research studies. That The decision is entirely yours.


You can find more information about the medicines and the safety of medicines on the Internet pages of the National Library
of Medicine, MedlinePlus: